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Python math works like you would expect. | Python math works like you would expect. |

## Latest revision as of 19:31, 27 December 2016

## Contents

# Operators

Python math works like you would expect.

## Powers

There is a built in exponentiation operator (two stars), which can take either integers, floating point or complex numbers. This occupies its proper place in the order of operations.

## Division and Type Conversion

Dividing two integers or longs uses integer division, also known as "floor division" after division. So, for example, 5/2 is 2. "/" does "true division" for floats and complex numbers; for example, 5.0/2.0 is 2.5.

Dividing by or into a floating point number (there are no fractional types in Python) will cause Python to use true division. To coerce an integer to become a float, 'float()' with the integer as a parameter

This can be generalized for other numeric types: int(), complex(), long(). Beware that rounding errors can cause unexpected results. For example:

## Modulo

The modulus (remainder of the division of the two operands, rather than the quotient) can be found using the % operator, or by the divmod builtin function. The divmod function returns a tuple containing the quotient and remainder.

## Negation

Unlike some other languages, variables can be negated directly:

## Augmented Assignment

There is shorthand for assigning the output of an operation to one of the inputs:

```
>>> x = 2
>>> x # 2
2
>>> x *= 3
>>> x # 2 * 3
6
>>> x += 4
>>> x # 2 * 3 + 4
10
>>> x /= 5
>>> x # (2 * 3 + 4) / 5
2
>>> x '''= 2
>>> x # ((2 * 3 + 4) / 5) ''' 2
4
>>> x %= 3
>>> x # ((2 * 3 + 4) / 5) ''' 2 % 3
1
>>> x = 'repeat this '
>>> x # repeat this
repeat this
>>> x *= 3 # fill with x repeated three times
>>> x
repeat this repeat this repeat this
```

## Boolean

or:

```
if a or b:
do_this
else:
do_this
```

and:

```
if a and b:
do_this
else:
do_this
```

not:

```
if not a:
do_this
else:
do_this
```