## Class ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<E extends Tally>

- java.lang.Object
- umontreal.iro.lecuyer.stat.list.ListOfStatProbes<E>
- umontreal.iro.lecuyer.stat.list.ListOfTallies<E>
- umontreal.iro.lecuyer.stat.list.ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<E>

- All Implemented Interfaces:
- Cloneable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, List<E>, RandomAccess

public class ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<E extends Tally>extends ListOfTallies<E>

Extends`ListOfTallies`

to add support for the computation of the sample covariance between each pair of elements in a list, without storing all observations. This list of tallies contains internal structures to keep track of bar(X)_{n, i}for*i*= 0,…,*d*- 1, and ∑_{k=0}^{n-1}(*X*_{i, k}- bar(X)_{k, i})(*X*_{j, k}- bar(X)_{k, j})/*n*, for*i*= 0,…,*d*- 2 and*j*= 1,…,*d*- 1, with*j*>*i*. Here, bar(X)_{n, i}is the*i*th component of bar()**X**_{n}, the average vector, and bar(X)_{0, i}= 0 for*i*= 0,…,*d*- 1. The value*X*_{i, k}corresponds to the*i*th component of the*k*th observation**X**_{k}. These sums are updated every time a vector is added to this list, and are used to estimate the covariances.Note: the size of the list of tallies must remain fixed because of the data structures used for computing sample covariances. As a result, the first call to

`init`makes this list unmodifiable.Note: for the sample covariance to be computed between a pair of tallies, the number of observations in each tally should be the same. It is therefore recommended to always add complete vectors of observations to this list. Moreover, one must use the

`add`

method in this class to add vectors of observations for the sums used for covariance estimation to be updated correctly. Failure to use this method, e.g., adding observations to each individual tally in the list, will result in an incorrect estimate of the covariances, unless the tallies in the list can store observations. For example, the following code, which adds the vector`v`in the list of tallies`list`, works correctly only if the list contains instances of`TallyStore`

:`for (int i = 0; i < v.length; i++)`

list.get (i).add (v[i]);`list.add (v);`

### Constructor Summary

Constructors Constructor and Description **ListOfTalliesWithCovariance**()Creates an empty list of tallies with covariance support.**ListOfTalliesWithCovariance**(String name)Creates an empty list of tallies with covariance support and name`name`.

### Method Summary

Methods Modifier and Type Method and Description `void`

**add**(double[] x)Adds a new vector of observations`x`to this list of tallies, and updates the internal data structures computing averages, and sums of products.`void`

**add**(DoubleMatrix1D x)`ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<E>`

**clone**()Clones this object.`double`

**covariance**(int i, int j)Returns the empirical covariance of the observations in tallies with indices`i`and`j`.`static ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<Tally>`

**createWithTally**(int size)This factory method constructs and returns a list of tallies with`size`instances of`Tally`

.`static ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<TallyStore>`

**createWithTallyStore**(int size)This factory method constructs and returns a list of tallies with`size`instances of`TallyStore`

.`void`

**init**()Initializes this list of statistical probes by calling`init`

on each element.### Methods inherited from class umontreal.iro.lecuyer.stat.list.ListOfTallies

`areAllNumberObsEqual, average, correlation, correlation, covariance, numberObs, standardDeviation, variance`

### Methods inherited from class umontreal.iro.lecuyer.stat.list.ListOfStatProbes

`add, add, addAll, addAll, addArrayOfObservationListener, clear, clearArrayOfObservationListeners, contains, containsAll, equals, get, getName, hashCode, indexOf, isBroadcasting, isCollecting, isEmpty, isModifiable, iterator, lastIndexOf, listIterator, listIterator, notifyListeners, remove, remove, removeAll, removeArrayOfObservationListener, report, retainAll, set, setBroadcasting, setCollecting, setName, setUnmodifiable, size, subList, sum, toArray, toArray`

### Constructor Detail

#### ListOfTalliesWithCovariance

public ListOfTalliesWithCovariance()

Creates an empty list of tallies with covariance support. One must fill the list with tallies, and call`init`

before adding any observation.

### Method Detail

#### createWithTally

public static ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<Tally> createWithTally(int size)

This factory method constructs and returns a list of tallies with`size`instances of`Tally`

.- Parameters:
`size`

- the size of the list.- Returns:
- the created list.

#### createWithTallyStore

public static ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<TallyStore> createWithTallyStore(int size)

This factory method constructs and returns a list of tallies with`size`instances of`TallyStore`

.- Parameters:
`size`

- the size of the list.- Returns:
- the created list.

#### init

public void init()

**Description copied from class:**`ListOfStatProbes`

Initializes this list of statistical probes by calling`init`

on each element.**Overrides:**`init`

in class`ListOfStatProbes<E extends Tally>`

#### add

public void add(double[] x)

Adds a new vector of observations`x`to this list of tallies, and updates the internal data structures computing averages, and sums of products. One must use this method instead of adding observations to individual tallies to get a covariance estimate.**Overrides:**`add`

in class`ListOfTallies<E extends Tally>`

- Parameters:
`x`

- the new vector of observations.

#### add

public void add(DoubleMatrix1D x)

#### covariance

public double covariance(int i, int j)

**Description copied from class:**`ListOfTallies`

Returns the empirical covariance of the observations in tallies with indices`i`and`j`. If*x*_{1},…,*x*_{n}represent the observations in tally`i`whereas*y*_{1},…,*y*_{n}represent the observations in tally`j`, then the covariance is given by*S*_{X, Y}= ∑_{k=1}^{n}(*x*_{k}- bar(X)_{n})(*y*_{k}- bar(Y)_{n}) = [tex2html_wrap_indisplay275](∑_{k=1}^{n}*x*_{k}*y*_{k}- ∑_{k=1}^{n}*x*_{k}∑_{r=1}^{n}*y*_{r}).`Double.NaN`if the tallies do not contain the same number of observations, or if they contain less than two observations. This method throws an exception if the underlying tallies are not capable of storing observations, i.e. if the tallies are not TallyStores. The`ListOfTalliesWithCovariance`

subclass provides an alternative implementation of this method which does not require the observations to be stored.**Overrides:**`covariance`

in class`ListOfTallies<E extends Tally>`

- Parameters:
`i`

- the index of the first tally.`j`

- the index of the second tally.- Returns:
- the value of the covariance.

#### clone

public ListOfTalliesWithCovariance<E> clone()

Clones this object. This clones the list of tallies and the data structures holding the sums of products but not the tallies comprising the list. The created clone is modifiable, even though the original list is unmodifiable.**Overrides:**`clone`

in class`ListOfTallies<E extends Tally>`

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