StatUtils
org.apache.commons.math3.stat

Class StatUtils



  • public final class StatUtilsextends Object
    StatUtils provides static methods for computing statistics based on data stored in double[] arrays.
    • Method Summary

      Methods 
      Modifier and TypeMethod and Description
      static doublegeometricMean(double[] values)
      Returns the geometric mean of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublegeometricMean(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the geometric mean of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublemax(double[] values)
      Returns the maximum of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublemax(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the maximum of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublemean(double[] values)
      Returns the arithmetic mean of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublemean(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the arithmetic mean of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublemeanDifference(double[] sample1, double[] sample2)
      Returns the mean of the (signed) differences between corresponding elements of the input arrays -- i.e., sum(sample1[i] - sample2[i]) / sample1.length.
      static doublemin(double[] values)
      Returns the minimum of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublemin(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the minimum of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static double[]mode(double[] sample)
      Returns the sample mode(s).
      static double[]mode(double[] sample, int begin, int length)
      Returns the sample mode(s).
      static double[]normalize(double[] sample)
      Normalize (standardize) the sample, so it is has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
      static doublepercentile(double[] values, double p)
      Returns an estimate of the pth percentile of the values in the values array.
      static doublepercentile(double[] values, int begin, int length, double p)
      Returns an estimate of the pth percentile of the values in the values array, starting with the element in (0-based) position begin in the array and including length values.
      static doublepopulationVariance(double[] values)
      Returns the population variance of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublepopulationVariance(double[] values, double mean)
      Returns the population variance of the entries in the input array, using the precomputed mean value.
      static doublepopulationVariance(double[] values, double mean, int begin, int length)
      Returns the population variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, using the precomputed mean value.
      static doublepopulationVariance(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the population variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doubleproduct(double[] values)
      Returns the product of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doubleproduct(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the product of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublesum(double[] values)
      Returns the sum of the values in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublesum(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the sum of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublesumDifference(double[] sample1, double[] sample2)
      Returns the sum of the (signed) differences between corresponding elements of the input arrays -- i.e., sum(sample1[i] - sample2[i]).
      static doublesumLog(double[] values)
      Returns the sum of the natural logs of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublesumLog(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the sum of the natural logs of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublesumSq(double[] values)
      Returns the sum of the squares of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublesumSq(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the sum of the squares of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublevariance(double[] values)
      Returns the variance of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.
      static doublevariance(double[] values, double mean)
      Returns the variance of the entries in the input array, using the precomputed mean value.
      static doublevariance(double[] values, double mean, int begin, int length)
      Returns the variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, using the precomputed mean value.
      static doublevariance(double[] values, int begin, int length)
      Returns the variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.
      static doublevarianceDifference(double[] sample1, double[] sample2, double meanDifference)
      Returns the variance of the (signed) differences between corresponding elements of the input arrays -- i.e., var(sample1[i] - sample2[i]).
    • Method Detail

      • sum

        public static double sum(double[] values)                  throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sum of the values in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the input array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - array of values to sum
        Returns:
        the sum of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • sum

        public static double sum(double[] values,         int begin,         int length)                  throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sum of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the sum of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • sumSq

        public static double sumSq(double[] values)                    throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sum of the squares of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - input array
        Returns:
        the sum of the squared values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • sumSq

        public static double sumSq(double[] values,           int begin,           int length)                    throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sum of the squares of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the sum of the squares of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • product

        public static double product(double[] values)                      throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the product of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the product of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • product

        public static double product(double[] values,             int begin,             int length)                      throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the product of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the product of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • sumLog

        public static double sumLog(double[] values)                     throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sum of the natural logs of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        See SumOfLogs.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the sum of the natural logs of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • sumLog

        public static double sumLog(double[] values,            int begin,            int length)                     throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sum of the natural logs of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        See SumOfLogs.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the sum of the natural logs of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • mean

        public static double mean(double[] values)                   throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the arithmetic mean of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        See Mean for details on the computing algorithm.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the mean of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • mean

        public static double mean(double[] values,          int begin,          int length)                   throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the arithmetic mean of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        See Mean for details on the computing algorithm.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the mean of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • geometricMean

        public static double geometricMean(double[] values)                            throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the geometric mean of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        See GeometricMean for details on the computing algorithm.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the geometric mean of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • geometricMean

        public static double geometricMean(double[] values,                   int begin,                   int length)                            throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the geometric mean of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws IllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        See GeometricMean for details on the computing algorithm.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the geometric mean of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • variance

        public static double variance(double[] values)                       throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the variance of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        This method returns the bias-corrected sample variance (using n - 1 in the denominator). Use populationVariance(double[]) for the non-bias-corrected population variance.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the variance of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • variance

        public static double variance(double[] values,              int begin,              int length)                       throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        This method returns the bias-corrected sample variance (using n - 1 in the denominator). Use populationVariance(double[], int, int) for the non-bias-corrected population variance.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the variance of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • variance

        public static double variance(double[] values,              double mean,              int begin,              int length)                       throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, using the precomputed mean value. Returns Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        This method returns the bias-corrected sample variance (using n - 1 in the denominator). Use populationVariance(double[], double, int, int) for the non-bias-corrected population variance.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        The formula used assumes that the supplied mean value is the arithmetic mean of the sample data, not a known population parameter. This method is supplied only to save computation when the mean has already been computed.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        mean - the precomputed mean value
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the variance of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • variance

        public static double variance(double[] values,              double mean)                       throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the variance of the entries in the input array, using the precomputed mean value. Returns Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        This method returns the bias-corrected sample variance (using n - 1 in the denominator). Use populationVariance(double[], double) for the non-bias-corrected population variance.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        The formula used assumes that the supplied mean value is the arithmetic mean of the sample data, not a known population parameter. This method is supplied only to save computation when the mean has already been computed.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        mean - the precomputed mean value
        Returns:
        the variance of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • populationVariance

        public static double populationVariance(double[] values)                                 throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the population variance of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        See Variance for details on the formula and computing algorithm.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the population variance of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • populationVariance

        public static double populationVariance(double[] values,                        int begin,                        int length)                                 throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the population variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the population variance of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • populationVariance

        public static double populationVariance(double[] values,                        double mean,                        int begin,                        int length)                                 throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the population variance of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, using the precomputed mean value. Returns Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        The formula used assumes that the supplied mean value is the arithmetic mean of the sample data, not a known population parameter. This method is supplied only to save computation when the mean has already been computed.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        mean - the precomputed mean value
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the population variance of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • populationVariance

        public static double populationVariance(double[] values,                        double mean)                                 throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the population variance of the entries in the input array, using the precomputed mean value. Returns Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        See Variance for details on the computing algorithm.

        The formula used assumes that the supplied mean value is the arithmetic mean of the sample data, not a known population parameter. This method is supplied only to save computation when the mean has already been computed.

        Returns 0 for a single-value (i.e. length = 1) sample.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        mean - the precomputed mean value
        Returns:
        the population variance of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • max

        public static double max(double[] values)                  throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the maximum of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        • The result is NaN iff all values are NaN (i.e. NaN values have no impact on the value of the statistic).
        • If any of the values equals Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY, the result is Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the maximum of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • max

        public static double max(double[] values,         int begin,         int length)                  throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the maximum of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid.

        • The result is NaN iff all values are NaN (i.e. NaN values have no impact on the value of the statistic).
        • If any of the values equals Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY, the result is Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the maximum of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • min

        public static double min(double[] values)                  throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the minimum of the entries in the input array, or Double.NaN if the array is empty.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null.

        • The result is NaN iff all values are NaN (i.e. NaN values have no impact on the value of the statistic).
        • If any of the values equals Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY, the result is Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        Returns:
        the minimum of the values or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null
      • min

        public static double min(double[] values,         int begin,         int length)                  throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the minimum of the entries in the specified portion of the input array, or Double.NaN if the designated subarray is empty.

        Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid.

        • The result is NaN iff all values are NaN (i.e. NaN values have no impact on the value of the statistic).
        • If any of the values equals Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY, the result is Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY.

        Parameters:
        values - the input array
        begin - index of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        the minimum of the values or Double.NaN if length = 0
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the array is null or the array index parameters are not valid
      • percentile

        public static double percentile(double[] values,                double p)                         throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns an estimate of the pth percentile of the values in the values array.

        • Returns Double.NaN if values has length 0
        • Returns (for any value of p) values[0] if values has length 1
        • Throws IllegalArgumentException if values is null or p is not a valid quantile value (p must be greater than 0 and less than or equal to 100)

        See Percentile for a description of the percentile estimation algorithm used.

        Parameters:
        values - input array of values
        p - the percentile value to compute
        Returns:
        the percentile value or Double.NaN if the array is empty
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if values is null or p is invalid
      • percentile

        public static double percentile(double[] values,                int begin,                int length,                double p)                         throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns an estimate of the pth percentile of the values in the values array, starting with the element in (0-based) position begin in the array and including length values.

        • Returns Double.NaN if length = 0
        • Returns (for any value of p) values[begin] if length = 1
        • Throws MathIllegalArgumentException if values is null , begin or length is invalid, or p is not a valid quantile value (p must be greater than 0 and less than or equal to 100)

        See Percentile for a description of the percentile estimation algorithm used.

        Parameters:
        values - array of input values
        p - the percentile to compute
        begin - the first (0-based) element to include in the computation
        length - the number of array elements to include
        Returns:
        the percentile value
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the parameters are not valid or the input array is null
      • sumDifference

        public static double sumDifference(double[] sample1,                   double[] sample2)                            throws DimensionMismatchException,                                   NoDataException
        Returns the sum of the (signed) differences between corresponding elements of the input arrays -- i.e., sum(sample1[i] - sample2[i]).
        Parameters:
        sample1 - the first array
        sample2 - the second array
        Returns:
        sum of paired differences
        Throws:
        DimensionMismatchException - if the arrays do not have the same (positive) length.
        NoDataException - if the sample arrays are empty.
      • meanDifference

        public static double meanDifference(double[] sample1,                    double[] sample2)                             throws DimensionMismatchException,                                    NoDataException
        Returns the mean of the (signed) differences between corresponding elements of the input arrays -- i.e., sum(sample1[i] - sample2[i]) / sample1.length.
        Parameters:
        sample1 - the first array
        sample2 - the second array
        Returns:
        mean of paired differences
        Throws:
        DimensionMismatchException - if the arrays do not have the same (positive) length.
        NoDataException - if the sample arrays are empty.
      • normalize

        public static double[] normalize(double[] sample)
        Normalize (standardize) the sample, so it is has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
        Parameters:
        sample - Sample to normalize.
        Returns:
        normalized (standardized) sample.
      • mode

        public static double[] mode(double[] sample)                     throws MathIllegalArgumentException
        Returns the sample mode(s). The mode is the most frequently occurring value in the sample. If there is a unique value with maximum frequency, this value is returned as the only element of the output array. Otherwise, the returned array contains the maximum frequency elements in increasing order. For example, if sample is {0, 12, 5, 6, 0, 13, 5, 17}, the returned array will have length two, with 0 in the first element and 5 in the second.

        NaN values are ignored when computing the mode - i.e., NaNs will never appear in the output array. If the sample includes only NaNs or has length 0, an empty array is returned.

        Parameters:
        sample - input data
        Returns:
        array of array of the most frequently occurring element(s) sorted in ascending order.
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the indices are invalid or the array is null
      • mode

        public static double[] mode(double[] sample,            int begin,            int length)
        Returns the sample mode(s). The mode is the most frequently occurring value in the sample. If there is a unique value with maximum frequency, this value is returned as the only element of the output array. Otherwise, the returned array contains the maximum frequency elements in increasing order. For example, if sample is {0, 12, 5, 6, 0, 13, 5, 17}, the returned array will have length two, with 0 in the first element and 5 in the second.

        NaN values are ignored when computing the mode - i.e., NaNs will never appear in the output array. If the sample includes only NaNs or has length 0, an empty array is returned.

        Parameters:
        sample - input data
        begin - index (0-based) of the first array element to include
        length - the number of elements to include
        Returns:
        array of array of the most frequently occurring element(s) sorted in ascending order.
        Throws:
        MathIllegalArgumentException - if the indices are invalid or the array is null

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