Vector3D
org.apache.commons.math3.geometry.euclidean.threed

Class Vector3D

    • Field Detail

      • ZERO

        public static final Vector3D ZERO
        Null vector (coordinates: 0, 0, 0).
      • PLUS_I

        public static final Vector3D PLUS_I
        First canonical vector (coordinates: 1, 0, 0).
      • MINUS_I

        public static final Vector3D MINUS_I
        Opposite of the first canonical vector (coordinates: -1, 0, 0).
      • PLUS_J

        public static final Vector3D PLUS_J
        Second canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 1, 0).
      • MINUS_J

        public static final Vector3D MINUS_J
        Opposite of the second canonical vector (coordinates: 0, -1, 0).
      • PLUS_K

        public static final Vector3D PLUS_K
        Third canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 0, 1).
      • MINUS_K

        public static final Vector3D MINUS_K
        Opposite of the third canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 0, -1).
      • NaN

        public static final Vector3D NaN
        A vector with all coordinates set to NaN.
      • POSITIVE_INFINITY

        public static final Vector3D POSITIVE_INFINITY
        A vector with all coordinates set to positive infinity.
      • NEGATIVE_INFINITY

        public static final Vector3D NEGATIVE_INFINITY
        A vector with all coordinates set to negative infinity.
    • Constructor Detail

      • Vector3D

        public Vector3D(double x,        double y,        double z)
        Simple constructor. Build a vector from its coordinates
        Parameters:
        x - abscissa
        y - ordinate
        z - height
        See Also:
        getX(), getY(), getZ()
      • Vector3D

        public Vector3D(double alpha,        double delta)
        Simple constructor. Build a vector from its azimuthal coordinates
        Parameters:
        alpha - azimuth (α) around Z (0 is +X, π/2 is +Y, π is -X and 3π/2 is -Y)
        delta - elevation (δ) above (XY) plane, from -π/2 to +π/2
        See Also:
        getAlpha(), getDelta()
      • Vector3D

        public Vector3D(double a,        Vector3D u)
        Multiplicative constructor Build a vector from another one and a scale factor. The vector built will be a * u
        Parameters:
        a - scale factor
        u - base (unscaled) vector
      • Vector3D

        public Vector3D(double a1,        Vector3D u1,        double a2,        Vector3D u2)
        Linear constructor Build a vector from two other ones and corresponding scale factors. The vector built will be a1 * u1 + a2 * u2
        Parameters:
        a1 - first scale factor
        u1 - first base (unscaled) vector
        a2 - second scale factor
        u2 - second base (unscaled) vector
      • Vector3D

        public Vector3D(double a1,        Vector3D u1,        double a2,        Vector3D u2,        double a3,        Vector3D u3)
        Linear constructor Build a vector from three other ones and corresponding scale factors. The vector built will be a1 * u1 + a2 * u2 + a3 * u3
        Parameters:
        a1 - first scale factor
        u1 - first base (unscaled) vector
        a2 - second scale factor
        u2 - second base (unscaled) vector
        a3 - third scale factor
        u3 - third base (unscaled) vector
      • Vector3D

        public Vector3D(double a1,        Vector3D u1,        double a2,        Vector3D u2,        double a3,        Vector3D u3,        double a4,        Vector3D u4)
        Linear constructor Build a vector from four other ones and corresponding scale factors. The vector built will be a1 * u1 + a2 * u2 + a3 * u3 + a4 * u4
        Parameters:
        a1 - first scale factor
        u1 - first base (unscaled) vector
        a2 - second scale factor
        u2 - second base (unscaled) vector
        a3 - third scale factor
        u3 - third base (unscaled) vector
        a4 - fourth scale factor
        u4 - fourth base (unscaled) vector
    • Method Detail

      • toArray

        public double[] toArray()
        Get the vector coordinates as a dimension 3 array.
        Returns:
        vector coordinates
        See Also:
        Vector3D(double[])
      • getSpace

        public Space getSpace()
        Get the space to which the point belongs.
        Specified by:
        getSpace in interface Point<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        containing space
      • getZero

        public Vector3D getZero()
        Get the null vector of the vectorial space or origin point of the affine space.
        Specified by:
        getZero in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        null vector of the vectorial space or origin point of the affine space
      • getNorm1

        public double getNorm1()
        Get the L1 norm for the vector.
        Specified by:
        getNorm1 in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        L1 norm for the vector
      • getNorm

        public double getNorm()
        Get the L2 norm for the vector.
        Specified by:
        getNorm in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        Euclidean norm for the vector
      • getNormSq

        public double getNormSq()
        Get the square of the norm for the vector.
        Specified by:
        getNormSq in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        square of the Euclidean norm for the vector
      • getNormInf

        public double getNormInf()
        Get the L norm for the vector.
        Specified by:
        getNormInf in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        L norm for the vector
      • getAlpha

        public double getAlpha()
        Get the azimuth of the vector.
        Returns:
        azimuth (α) of the vector, between -π and +π
        See Also:
        Vector3D(double, double)
      • getDelta

        public double getDelta()
        Get the elevation of the vector.
        Returns:
        elevation (δ) of the vector, between -π/2 and +π/2
        See Also:
        Vector3D(double, double)
      • add

        public Vector3D add(double factor,           Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Add a scaled vector to the instance.
        Specified by:
        add in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        factor - scale factor to apply to v before adding it
        v - vector to add
        Returns:
        a new vector
      • subtract

        public Vector3D subtract(double factor,                Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Subtract a scaled vector from the instance.
        Specified by:
        subtract in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        factor - scale factor to apply to v before subtracting it
        v - vector to subtract
        Returns:
        a new vector
      • orthogonal

        public Vector3D orthogonal()                    throws MathArithmeticException
        Get a vector orthogonal to the instance.

        There are an infinite number of normalized vectors orthogonal to the instance. This method picks up one of them almost arbitrarily. It is useful when one needs to compute a reference frame with one of the axes in a predefined direction. The following example shows how to build a frame having the k axis aligned with the known vector u :

           Vector3D k = u.normalize();   Vector3D i = k.orthogonal();   Vector3D j = Vector3D.crossProduct(k, i); 

        Returns:
        a new normalized vector orthogonal to the instance
        Throws:
        MathArithmeticException - if the norm of the instance is null
      • angle

        public static double angle(Vector3D v1,           Vector3D v2)                    throws MathArithmeticException
        Compute the angular separation between two vectors.

        This method computes the angular separation between two vectors using the dot product for well separated vectors and the cross product for almost aligned vectors. This allows to have a good accuracy in all cases, even for vectors very close to each other.

        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        angular separation between v1 and v2
        Throws:
        MathArithmeticException - if either vector has a null norm
      • negate

        public Vector3D negate()
        Get the opposite of the instance.
        Specified by:
        negate in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        a new vector which is opposite to the instance
      • isNaN

        public boolean isNaN()
        Returns true if any coordinate of this point is NaN; false otherwise
        Specified by:
        isNaN in interface Point<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        true if any coordinate of this point is NaN; false otherwise
      • isInfinite

        public boolean isInfinite()
        Returns true if any coordinate of this vector is infinite and none are NaN; false otherwise
        Specified by:
        isInfinite in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Returns:
        true if any coordinate of this vector is infinite and none are NaN; false otherwise
      • equals

        public boolean equals(Object other)
        Test for the equality of two 3D vectors.

        If all coordinates of two 3D vectors are exactly the same, and none are Double.NaN, the two 3D vectors are considered to be equal.

        NaN coordinates are considered to affect globally the vector and be equals to each other - i.e, if either (or all) coordinates of the 3D vector are equal to Double.NaN, the 3D vector is equal to NaN.

        Overrides:
        equals in class Object
        Parameters:
        other - Object to test for equality to this
        Returns:
        true if two 3D vector objects are equal, false if object is null, not an instance of Vector3D, or not equal to this Vector3D instance
      • hashCode

        public int hashCode()
        Get a hashCode for the 3D vector.

        All NaN values have the same hash code.

        Overrides:
        hashCode in class Object
        Returns:
        a hash code value for this object
      • crossProduct

        public Vector3D crossProduct(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Compute the cross-product of the instance with another vector.
        Parameters:
        v - other vector
        Returns:
        the cross product this ^ v as a new Vector3D
      • distance1

        public double distance1(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L1 norm.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: q.subtract(p).getNorm1() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Specified by:
        distance1 in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        v - second vector
        Returns:
        the distance between the instance and p according to the L1 norm
      • distance

        public double distance(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L2 norm.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: q.subtract(p).getNorm() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Specified by:
        distance in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        v - second vector
        Returns:
        the distance between the instance and p according to the L2 norm
      • distance

        public double distance(Point<Euclidean3D> v)
        Compute the distance between the instance and another point.
        Specified by:
        distance in interface Point<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        v - second point
        Returns:
        the distance between the instance and p
      • distanceInf

        public double distanceInf(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L norm.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: q.subtract(p).getNormInf() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Specified by:
        distanceInf in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        v - second vector
        Returns:
        the distance between the instance and p according to the L norm
      • distanceSq

        public double distanceSq(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)
        Compute the square of the distance between the instance and another vector.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: q.subtract(p).getNormSq() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Specified by:
        distanceSq in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        v - second vector
        Returns:
        the square of the distance between the instance and p
      • dotProduct

        public static double dotProduct(Vector3D v1,                Vector3D v2)
        Compute the dot-product of two vectors.
        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        the dot product v1.v2
      • crossProduct

        public static Vector3D crossProduct(Vector3D v1,                    Vector3D v2)
        Compute the cross-product of two vectors.
        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        the cross product v1 ^ v2 as a new Vector
      • distance1

        public static double distance1(Vector3D v1,               Vector3D v2)
        Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L1 norm.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: v1.subtract(v2).getNorm1() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        the distance between v1 and v2 according to the L1 norm
      • distance

        public static double distance(Vector3D v1,              Vector3D v2)
        Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L2 norm.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: v1.subtract(v2).getNorm() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        the distance between v1 and v2 according to the L2 norm
      • distanceInf

        public static double distanceInf(Vector3D v1,                 Vector3D v2)
        Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L norm.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: v1.subtract(v2).getNormInf() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        the distance between v1 and v2 according to the L norm
      • distanceSq

        public static double distanceSq(Vector3D v1,                Vector3D v2)
        Compute the square of the distance between two vectors.

        Calling this method is equivalent to calling: v1.subtract(v2).getNormSq() except that no intermediate vector is built

        Parameters:
        v1 - first vector
        v2 - second vector
        Returns:
        the square of the distance between v1 and v2
      • toString

        public String toString()
        Get a string representation of this vector.
        Overrides:
        toString in class Object
        Returns:
        a string representation of this vector
      • toString

        public String toString(NumberFormat format)
        Get a string representation of this vector.
        Specified by:
        toString in interface Vector<Euclidean3D>
        Parameters:
        format - the custom format for components
        Returns:
        a string representation of this vector

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