## Class Vector3D

- java.lang.Object
- org.apache.commons.math3.geometry.euclidean.threed.Vector3D

- All Implemented Interfaces:
- Serializable, Point<Euclidean3D>, Vector<Euclidean3D>

public class Vector3Dextends Objectimplements Serializable, Vector<Euclidean3D>

This class implements vectors in a three-dimensional space.Instance of this class are guaranteed to be immutable.

- See Also:
- Serialized Form

### Field Summary

Fields Modifier and Type Field and Description `static Vector3D`

**MINUS_I**Opposite of the first canonical vector (coordinates: -1, 0, 0).`static Vector3D`

**MINUS_J**Opposite of the second canonical vector (coordinates: 0, -1, 0).`static Vector3D`

**MINUS_K**Opposite of the third canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 0, -1).`static Vector3D`

**NaN**A vector with all coordinates set to NaN.`static Vector3D`

**NEGATIVE_INFINITY**A vector with all coordinates set to negative infinity.`static Vector3D`

**PLUS_I**First canonical vector (coordinates: 1, 0, 0).`static Vector3D`

**PLUS_J**Second canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 1, 0).`static Vector3D`

**PLUS_K**Third canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 0, 1).`static Vector3D`

**POSITIVE_INFINITY**A vector with all coordinates set to positive infinity.`static Vector3D`

**ZERO**Null vector (coordinates: 0, 0, 0).

### Constructor Summary

Constructors Constructor and Description **Vector3D**(double[] v)Simple constructor.**Vector3D**(double alpha, double delta)Simple constructor.**Vector3D**(double x, double y, double z)Simple constructor.**Vector3D**(double a, Vector3D u)Multiplicative constructor Build a vector from another one and a scale factor.**Vector3D**(double a1, Vector3D u1, double a2, Vector3D u2)Linear constructor Build a vector from two other ones and corresponding scale factors.**Vector3D**(double a1, Vector3D u1, double a2, Vector3D u2, double a3, Vector3D u3)Linear constructor Build a vector from three other ones and corresponding scale factors.**Vector3D**(double a1, Vector3D u1, double a2, Vector3D u2, double a3, Vector3D u3, double a4, Vector3D u4)Linear constructor Build a vector from four other ones and corresponding scale factors.

### Method Summary

Methods Modifier and Type Method and Description `Vector3D`

**add**(double factor, Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Add a scaled vector to the instance.`Vector3D`

**add**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Add a vector to the instance.`static double`

**angle**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the angular separation between two vectors.`Vector3D`

**crossProduct**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the cross-product of the instance with another vector.`static Vector3D`

**crossProduct**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the cross-product of two vectors.`double`

**distance**(Point<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the distance between the instance and another point.`double`

**distance**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L_{2}norm.`static double`

**distance**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L_{2}norm.`double`

**distance1**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L_{1}norm.`static double`

**distance1**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L_{1}norm.`double`

**distanceInf**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L_{∞}norm.`static double`

**distanceInf**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L_{∞}norm.`double`

**distanceSq**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the square of the distance between the instance and another vector.`static double`

**distanceSq**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the square of the distance between two vectors.`double`

**dotProduct**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Compute the dot-product of the instance and another vector.`static double`

**dotProduct**(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)Compute the dot-product of two vectors.`boolean`

**equals**(Object other)Test for the equality of two 3D vectors.`double`

**getAlpha**()Get the azimuth of the vector.`double`

**getDelta**()Get the elevation of the vector.`double`

**getNorm**()Get the L_{2}norm for the vector.`double`

**getNorm1**()Get the L_{1}norm for the vector.`double`

**getNormInf**()Get the L_{∞}norm for the vector.`double`

**getNormSq**()Get the square of the norm for the vector.`Space`

**getSpace**()Get the space to which the point belongs.`double`

**getX**()Get the abscissa of the vector.`double`

**getY**()Get the ordinate of the vector.`double`

**getZ**()Get the height of the vector.`Vector3D`

**getZero**()Get the null vector of the vectorial space or origin point of the affine space.`int`

**hashCode**()Get a hashCode for the 3D vector.`boolean`

**isInfinite**()Returns true if any coordinate of this vector is infinite and none are NaN; false otherwise`boolean`

**isNaN**()Returns true if any coordinate of this point is NaN; false otherwise`Vector3D`

**negate**()Get the opposite of the instance.`Vector3D`

**normalize**()Get a normalized vector aligned with the instance.`Vector3D`

**orthogonal**()Get a vector orthogonal to the instance.`Vector3D`

**scalarMultiply**(double a)Multiply the instance by a scalar.`Vector3D`

**subtract**(double factor, Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Subtract a scaled vector from the instance.`Vector3D`

**subtract**(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)Subtract a vector from the instance.`double[]`

**toArray**()Get the vector coordinates as a dimension 3 array.`String`

**toString**()Get a string representation of this vector.`String`

**toString**(NumberFormat format)Get a string representation of this vector.

### Field Detail

#### ZERO

public static final Vector3D ZERO

Null vector (coordinates: 0, 0, 0).

#### PLUS_I

public static final Vector3D PLUS_I

First canonical vector (coordinates: 1, 0, 0).

#### MINUS_I

public static final Vector3D MINUS_I

Opposite of the first canonical vector (coordinates: -1, 0, 0).

#### PLUS_J

public static final Vector3D PLUS_J

Second canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 1, 0).

#### MINUS_J

public static final Vector3D MINUS_J

Opposite of the second canonical vector (coordinates: 0, -1, 0).

#### PLUS_K

public static final Vector3D PLUS_K

Third canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 0, 1).

#### MINUS_K

public static final Vector3D MINUS_K

Opposite of the third canonical vector (coordinates: 0, 0, -1).

#### NaN

public static final Vector3D NaN

A vector with all coordinates set to NaN.

#### POSITIVE_INFINITY

public static final Vector3D POSITIVE_INFINITY

A vector with all coordinates set to positive infinity.

#### NEGATIVE_INFINITY

public static final Vector3D NEGATIVE_INFINITY

A vector with all coordinates set to negative infinity.

### Constructor Detail

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double x, double y, double z)

Simple constructor. Build a vector from its coordinates

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double[] v) throws DimensionMismatchException

Simple constructor. Build a vector from its coordinates- Parameters:
`v`

- coordinates array- Throws:
`DimensionMismatchException`

- if array does not have 3 elements- See Also:
`toArray()`

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double alpha, double delta)

Simple constructor. Build a vector from its azimuthal coordinates- Parameters:
`alpha`

- azimuth (α) around Z (0 is +X, π/2 is +Y, π is -X and 3π/2 is -Y)`delta`

- elevation (δ) above (XY) plane, from -π/2 to +π/2- See Also:
`getAlpha()`

,`getDelta()`

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double a, Vector3D u)

Multiplicative constructor Build a vector from another one and a scale factor. The vector built will be a * u- Parameters:
`a`

- scale factor`u`

- base (unscaled) vector

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double a1, Vector3D u1, double a2, Vector3D u2)

Linear constructor Build a vector from two other ones and corresponding scale factors. The vector built will be a1 * u1 + a2 * u2- Parameters:
`a1`

- first scale factor`u1`

- first base (unscaled) vector`a2`

- second scale factor`u2`

- second base (unscaled) vector

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double a1, Vector3D u1, double a2, Vector3D u2, double a3, Vector3D u3)

Linear constructor Build a vector from three other ones and corresponding scale factors. The vector built will be a1 * u1 + a2 * u2 + a3 * u3- Parameters:
`a1`

- first scale factor`u1`

- first base (unscaled) vector`a2`

- second scale factor`u2`

- second base (unscaled) vector`a3`

- third scale factor`u3`

- third base (unscaled) vector

#### Vector3D

public Vector3D(double a1, Vector3D u1, double a2, Vector3D u2, double a3, Vector3D u3, double a4, Vector3D u4)

Linear constructor Build a vector from four other ones and corresponding scale factors. The vector built will be a1 * u1 + a2 * u2 + a3 * u3 + a4 * u4- Parameters:
`a1`

- first scale factor`u1`

- first base (unscaled) vector`a2`

- second scale factor`u2`

- second base (unscaled) vector`a3`

- third scale factor`u3`

- third base (unscaled) vector`a4`

- fourth scale factor`u4`

- fourth base (unscaled) vector

### Method Detail

#### getX

public double getX()

Get the abscissa of the vector.- Returns:
- abscissa of the vector
- See Also:
`Vector3D(double, double, double)`

#### getY

public double getY()

Get the ordinate of the vector.- Returns:
- ordinate of the vector
- See Also:
`Vector3D(double, double, double)`

#### getZ

public double getZ()

Get the height of the vector.- Returns:
- height of the vector
- See Also:
`Vector3D(double, double, double)`

#### toArray

public double[] toArray()

Get the vector coordinates as a dimension 3 array.- Returns:
- vector coordinates
- See Also:
`Vector3D(double[])`

#### getSpace

public Space getSpace()

Get the space to which the point belongs.**Specified by:**`getSpace`

in interface`Point<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- containing space

#### getZero

public Vector3D getZero()

Get the null vector of the vectorial space or origin point of the affine space.**Specified by:**`getZero`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- null vector of the vectorial space or origin point of the affine space

#### getNorm1

public double getNorm1()

Get the L_{1}norm for the vector.**Specified by:**`getNorm1`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- L
_{1}norm for the vector

#### getNorm

public double getNorm()

Get the L_{2}norm for the vector.**Specified by:**`getNorm`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- Euclidean norm for the vector

#### getNormSq

public double getNormSq()

Get the square of the norm for the vector.**Specified by:**`getNormSq`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- square of the Euclidean norm for the vector

#### getNormInf

public double getNormInf()

Get the L_{∞}norm for the vector.**Specified by:**`getNormInf`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- L
_{∞}norm for the vector

#### getAlpha

public double getAlpha()

Get the azimuth of the vector.- Returns:
- azimuth (α) of the vector, between -π and +π
- See Also:
`Vector3D(double, double)`

#### getDelta

public double getDelta()

Get the elevation of the vector.- Returns:
- elevation (δ) of the vector, between -π/2 and +π/2
- See Also:
`Vector3D(double, double)`

#### add

public Vector3D add(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Add a vector to the instance.**Specified by:**`add`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- vector to add- Returns:
- a new vector

#### add

public Vector3D add(double factor, Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Add a scaled vector to the instance.**Specified by:**`add`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`factor`

- scale factor to apply to v before adding it`v`

- vector to add- Returns:
- a new vector

#### subtract

public Vector3D subtract(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Subtract a vector from the instance.**Specified by:**`subtract`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- vector to subtract- Returns:
- a new vector

#### subtract

public Vector3D subtract(double factor, Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Subtract a scaled vector from the instance.**Specified by:**`subtract`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`factor`

- scale factor to apply to v before subtracting it`v`

- vector to subtract- Returns:
- a new vector

#### normalize

public Vector3D normalize() throws MathArithmeticException

Get a normalized vector aligned with the instance.**Specified by:**`normalize`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- a new normalized vector
- Throws:
`MathArithmeticException`

- if the norm is zero

#### orthogonal

public Vector3D orthogonal() throws MathArithmeticException

Get a vector orthogonal to the instance.There are an infinite number of normalized vectors orthogonal to the instance. This method picks up one of them almost arbitrarily. It is useful when one needs to compute a reference frame with one of the axes in a predefined direction. The following example shows how to build a frame having the k axis aligned with the known vector u :

`Vector3D k = u.normalize(); Vector3D i = k.orthogonal(); Vector3D j = Vector3D.crossProduct(k, i);`

- Returns:
- a new normalized vector orthogonal to the instance
- Throws:
`MathArithmeticException`

- if the norm of the instance is null

#### angle

public static double angle(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2) throws MathArithmeticException

Compute the angular separation between two vectors.This method computes the angular separation between two vectors using the dot product for well separated vectors and the cross product for almost aligned vectors. This allows to have a good accuracy in all cases, even for vectors very close to each other.

- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- angular separation between v1 and v2
- Throws:
`MathArithmeticException`

- if either vector has a null norm

#### negate

public Vector3D negate()

Get the opposite of the instance.**Specified by:**`negate`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- a new vector which is opposite to the instance

#### scalarMultiply

public Vector3D scalarMultiply(double a)

Multiply the instance by a scalar.**Specified by:**`scalarMultiply`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`a`

- scalar- Returns:
- a new vector

#### isNaN

public boolean isNaN()

Returns true if any coordinate of this point is NaN; false otherwise**Specified by:**`isNaN`

in interface`Point<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- true if any coordinate of this point is NaN; false otherwise

#### isInfinite

public boolean isInfinite()

Returns true if any coordinate of this vector is infinite and none are NaN; false otherwise**Specified by:**`isInfinite`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Returns:
- true if any coordinate of this vector is infinite and none are NaN; false otherwise

#### equals

public boolean equals(Object other)

Test for the equality of two 3D vectors.If all coordinates of two 3D vectors are exactly the same, and none are

`Double.NaN`

, the two 3D vectors are considered to be equal.`NaN`

coordinates are considered to affect globally the vector and be equals to each other - i.e, if either (or all) coordinates of the 3D vector are equal to`Double.NaN`

, the 3D vector is equal to`NaN`

.

#### hashCode

public int hashCode()

Get a hashCode for the 3D vector.All NaN values have the same hash code.

#### dotProduct

public double dotProduct(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the dot-product of the instance and another vector.The implementation uses specific multiplication and addition algorithms to preserve accuracy and reduce cancellation effects. It should be very accurate even for nearly orthogonal vectors.

**Specified by:**`dotProduct`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- second vector- Returns:
- the dot product this.v
- See Also:
`MathArrays.linearCombination(double, double, double, double, double, double)`

#### crossProduct

public Vector3D crossProduct(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the cross-product of the instance with another vector.- Parameters:
`v`

- other vector- Returns:
- the cross product this ^ v as a new Vector3D

#### distance1

public double distance1(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L_{1}norm.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`q.subtract(p).getNorm1()`

except that no intermediate vector is built**Specified by:**`distance1`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- second vector- Returns:
- the distance between the instance and p according to the L
_{1}norm

#### distance

public double distance(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L_{2}norm.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`q.subtract(p).getNorm()`

except that no intermediate vector is built**Specified by:**`distance`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- second vector- Returns:
- the distance between the instance and p according to the L
_{2}norm

#### distance

public double distance(Point<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the distance between the instance and another point.**Specified by:**`distance`

in interface`Point<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- second point- Returns:
- the distance between the instance and p

#### distanceInf

public double distanceInf(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the distance between the instance and another vector according to the L_{∞}norm.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`q.subtract(p).getNormInf()`

except that no intermediate vector is built**Specified by:**`distanceInf`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- second vector- Returns:
- the distance between the instance and p according to the L
_{∞}norm

#### distanceSq

public double distanceSq(Vector<Euclidean3D> v)

Compute the square of the distance between the instance and another vector.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`q.subtract(p).getNormSq()`

except that no intermediate vector is built**Specified by:**`distanceSq`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`v`

- second vector- Returns:
- the square of the distance between the instance and p

#### dotProduct

public static double dotProduct(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)

Compute the dot-product of two vectors.- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- the dot product v1.v2

#### crossProduct

public static Vector3D crossProduct(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)

Compute the cross-product of two vectors.- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- the cross product v1 ^ v2 as a new Vector

#### distance1

public static double distance1(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)

Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L_{1}norm.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`v1.subtract(v2).getNorm1()`

except that no intermediate vector is built- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- the distance between v1 and v2 according to the L
_{1}norm

#### distance

public static double distance(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)

Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L_{2}norm.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`v1.subtract(v2).getNorm()`

except that no intermediate vector is built- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- the distance between v1 and v2 according to the L
_{2}norm

#### distanceInf

public static double distanceInf(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)

Compute the distance between two vectors according to the L_{∞}norm.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`v1.subtract(v2).getNormInf()`

except that no intermediate vector is built- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- the distance between v1 and v2 according to the L
_{∞}norm

#### distanceSq

public static double distanceSq(Vector3D v1, Vector3D v2)

Compute the square of the distance between two vectors.Calling this method is equivalent to calling:

`v1.subtract(v2).getNormSq()`

except that no intermediate vector is built- Parameters:
`v1`

- first vector`v2`

- second vector- Returns:
- the square of the distance between v1 and v2

#### toString

public String toString()

Get a string representation of this vector.

#### toString

public String toString(NumberFormat format)

Get a string representation of this vector.**Specified by:**`toString`

in interface`Vector<Euclidean3D>`

- Parameters:
`format`

- the custom format for components- Returns:
- a string representation of this vector

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