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# Operators

## Basics

Python math works like you would expect.

```x = 2;  y = 3; z = 5
print x * y
print x + y
print x * y + z
print (x + y) * z```

## Powers

There is a built in exponentiation operator (two stars), which can take either integers, floating point or complex numbers. This occupies its proper place in the order of operations.

`y=2**8; print y`

## Division and Type Conversion

Dividing two integers or longs uses integer division, also known as “floor division” after division. So, for example, 5/2 is 2. ”/” does “true division” for floats and complex numbers; for example, 5.0/2.0 is 2.5.

Dividing by or into a floating point number (there are no fractional types in Python) will cause Python to use true division. To coerce an integer to become a float, 'float()' with the integer as a parameter

```x = 5; y=float(x)
print y```

This can be generalized for other numeric types: int(), complex(), long(). Beware that rounding errors can cause unexpected results. For example:

```print 0.6/0.2
print 0.6//0.2```

## Modulo

The modulus (remainder of the division of the two operands, rather than the quotient) can be found using the % operator, or by the divmod builtin function. The divmod function returns a tuple containing the quotient and remainder.

`print 10%7`

## Negation

Unlike some other languages, variables can be negated directly:

```x = 5
print -x```

## Augmented Assignment

There is shorthand for assigning the output of an operation to one of the inputs:

```>>> x = 2
>>> x # 2
2
>>> x *= 3
>>> x # 2 * 3
6
>>> x += 4
>>> x # 2 * 3 + 4
10
>>> x /= 5
>>> x # (2 * 3 + 4) / 5
2
>>> x **= 2
>>> x # ((2 * 3 + 4) / 5) ** 2
4
>>> x %= 3
>>> x # ((2 * 3 + 4) / 5) ** 2 % 3
1

>>> x = 'repeat this  '
>>> x  # repeat this
repeat this
>>> x *= 3  # fill with x repeated three times
>>> x
repeat this  repeat this  repeat this```

## Boolean

or:

```if a or b:
do_this
else:
do_this```

and:

```if a and b:
do_this
else:
do_this```

not:

```if not a:
do_this
else:
do_this```